Contract Law

Ori Katz

Ori Katz

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Ori Katz earned his bachelor’s degree summa cum laudein law and psychology from the Hebrew University. He also received rabbinical ordination from the Chief Rabbinate of Israel.Ori was admitted to the Israel Bar Association in June 2015


As a law student, Ori served on the editorial board of Mishpatim, Hebrew University's law review. He was research assistant for Professor Eyal Zamir and Professor David Gliksberg in the field of behavioral and empirical legal studies. In addition, Ori was a TA in “Contract Law” and “Legal Research and Writing.” Upon graduation, he clerked for Supreme Court Justice Hanan Melcer.


Currently a research fellow in the faculty, Ori is writing his dissertation titled “An Attitude-Based Theory of Judgments and Decision-Making in Contract Law,” under the supervision of Professor Eyal Zamir. As a Ph.D candidate, Ori has served as a TA in “Property Law” and in the Workshop in Law and Economics, and is currently an instructor in “Contract Law.” He also practices as a prosecutor in the Student Disciplinary Committee.


Ori was awarded the Kaye Einstein Scholarship and the Joanna Friedlander Prizeand earned a research grant from the Aharon Barak Center for Interdisciplinary Legal Research. His paper, “The Remedy of Enforced Performance: Law, Theory, and Empirical Findings,” co-authored with Prof. Eyal Zamir and Dr. Leon Anijdar, was accepted to the Mishpatimjournal.Ori presented it at the Conference on Empirical Legal Studies in Europe (CELSE), KU Leuven, May 2018.


Abstract of the dissertation:

Judges' attitudes are considered a key element of judicial decision-making. When a law is implemented, the decision-maker's personal normative inclinations play a significant role in determining decisions. This happens due to two main reasons: First, when legal rules generate interpretative ambiguity, applying the law to a specific case legitimately requires judges' own interpretation. Second, judges may have a desired outcome they are inclined to arrive at, and they consciously and unconsciously adjust their arguments accordingly.


Despite the importance of judicial attitudes, no attempt has been made to systematically account for the diversity in attitudes, or to develop an empirical tool to measure them. My dissertation will take the first steps in filling this gap specifically concerning contract law. It will have four primary goals: (a) Developing an attitude-based theory of contracts by mapping the core conflicts that divide judges, lawyers, legal scholars, and laypersons regarding contract disputes. (b) Constructing and validating a questionnaire to measure people’s contractual attitudes. (c) Investigating the correlations and causal connections between contractual attitudes and individual characteristics such as gender, political affiliation, legal education, and culture. (d) Exploring how contractual attitudes influence decision-making in contracts disputes, consciously and unconsciously.


Dissertation topic: An Attitude-Based Theory of Judgments and Decision-Making in Contract Law.

Supervisor: Prof. Eyal Zamir.


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Berachyahu Lifshitz

Prof. Berachyahu Lifshitz

Henry J. and Fannie Harkavy chair in comparative law

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Higher Education

1965-1970 Yeshivah, “Kerem B’Yavneh”
1970-1974 LL.B. (with distinction), Faculty of Law, Hebrew University
1974-1975 Clerkship, The Supreme Court of Israel (Judge I. Kister) and the District Attorney of Jerusalem (M. Kirsch)
1975 - Member of the Israeli Bar Association
1977 M.A. (with distinction), Talmud, The Hebrew University (Topic: Third Chapter of Tractate Ketubot [BT], Text and Exegsis. Supervisor: Prof. E. Sh. Rosenthal)
1979 Dr. Juris. (summa cum laude), Hebrew University. (Topic: One Does Not Receive Both the Death Penalty and Payment. (Supervisor: Prof. Menahem Elon).

Professional Activity

1971-1987 A member of the Institute for Research in Jewish Law, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University
1972-1979 Assistant teacher and Instructor, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University
1979-1983 Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University
1980-1981 Lecturer, the Department of Talmud, Hebrew University
1983-1988 Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University
1983-1984 Research Fellow, Harvard University
1984 Member of the Faculty Disciplinary Court, The Hebrew University
1986-2001 Member of the Acadmic commitee of the Institute for Research in J. Law
1989-1996 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University
1990-1996 Member of the Codification Committee, Ministry of Justice
1991-1993 Vice-Dean, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University
1992-1996 Associate Professor, The College of Management
1994-1996 Dean, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University
1994 Member of the Committee on the Clerkship Problem in Israel
1995- The Harkavy Chair for Comparative Law
1994 - Member of the Academic Committee of The Jewish Law Association
1995-‏2001 Chairman of the Academic Committee of the Institute for Research in Jewish Law, The Hebrew University
1995-2001 Member of the Academic Committee of the Silbert Institute, The Hebrew University
1996 Full Professor, The Hebrew University
1996- Academic Committee of the Center for Teaching Jewish Culture in the Diaspora
1996-2000 President (Hon.), The Jewish Law Association
1996-2000 President, Disciplinary Court, The Hebrew University
1996-1998 Chairman of the Board of Directors, The College of Law, Ramat Gan
1996-1999 Chairman of the Central Admission Committee of the Hebrew University
1997- Member of the Hon. Presidency of the Movement for the Quality of Government in Israel
1997- 2007 Professor, College of Law, Ramat-Gan
1998- Member of the Committees of Scientific Literature and Jewish Stusies, The Bialik Institute, Jerusalem
1999- Member of the Curatorion, The Bialik Institute, Jerusalem
1999 - Memoriak Foundation for Jewish Culture
2000 - 2001 Sabbatical year, Penn U., The Center for Jewish Studies
2001-2004 Director, the Institute for Research in Jewish Law, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
2001- Member of the Academic Council, Orot Israel College of Education
2001-2004 Person in charge of the prosecution of the academic staff, The Heb. U.
2002- Member of the Hight Committee of Appointments, The Hebrew University
2004- Member of the Senate, Hebrew University
2005- Member of Search Committee for Rector, Hebrew University
2005 - Member of the committee for the draft of a Constitution for the State of Israel, The Institute for Zionist Strategies, Jerusalem
2006 - 2007 Director, The Harry Sacher Institute
2007 - Professor, Sharei Mishpat College of Law
2007 - Member of the Accademic Committee of the World Congress of Jewish Studies
2007 - Member of the Committee of Appointments for tenure positions
2009 - Chairman of the Accademic Committee of The Harry Sacher Institue
2009 - Member of the Senate, Heb. U.
4.2011- Head, the Institute for Research in Jewish Law


1973 The Webber Prize
1975 The Amitay Prize
1976 The Urbach Prize
1977 The Jacob Herzog Prize
1980 The Warburg Prize
1981 The Zilberg Prize
1983 The Shnarch Prize
1986 The Duchan Prize
1989 The Rosenthal Prize

Board of Editors

1971-1975 Mishpatim (1974-1976, Vice-Editor)
1979-1983 Deot
1982- Shenaton Ha Mishpat HaIvri (2001-2003 Editor-in-Chief; 2007-2009 Co-Editor)
1998- The Jewish Law Annual - Editor-in-Chief
2000-2004 Shanna be’ Shanna


Dr. M. Vigoda
Dr. A.Radzyner
Dr. Y. Brand
Dr. Y. Cohen
Dr. Sh. Wosner
Dr. B. Cahana
Y. Shapira
E. Zilberstein
Sh. Barash
B.Z. Grinberger
G. Edri
M. Dror


M. Vigoda; Sh. Wosner; Ch. Goldberg


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Gideon Parchomovsky

Prof. Gideon Parchomovsky

Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz Chair in Corporate Law


1998 J.S.D. Law School Yale.

1995 LL.M. Boalt Hall, University of California Berkeley.

Benny Porat

Prof. Benny Porat

Associate Professor
Director of the Israel Matz Institute for Jewish Law
Joseph (J.T.) Tanenbaum Chair in Jewish Law

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1999 B.A. (cum laude), The Faculty of Humanities, The Open University of Israel
2002 M.A. (cum laude), The Faculty of Humanities, The Hebrew University
2009 LL.D. (summa cum laude), Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University
2010 Halbert Post-Doctoral Fellow, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto


Representative publications

'Ownership and Exclusivity: Two Visions, Two Traditions', 64 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW, 147-190 (2016)
'Good Faith: A Conceptual Comparative Study', 45 MISHPATIM 603-651 (2016)
'The Philosophy of Jewish Law: A Methodological Reflection', 30 DIN? ISRAEL 179-213 (2015) 
'Lethal Self Defense against a Rapist and the Challenge of Proportionality: Jewish Law Perspective', 26 COLUMBIA JOURNAL OF GENDER AND LAW 123- 181 (2013) 


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Prof. Gabriela Shalev

Prof. Gabriela Shalev

Lawrence D. Biele Chair in Law

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Gabriela Shalev was born in Tel Aviv in 1941. On 1964 she completed a bachelor’s degree in law magna cum laude at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, serving as an intern for Supreme Court Justice Yoel Sussman. She received her license to practice law in 1968, and in 1969 she was awarded a master’s degree in law magna cum laude from the Hebrew University. Shalev began to publish articles in legal journals in Israel, and later around the world. At the same time she began working on her doctorate thesis under the supervision of Prof. Gad Tedeschi. Shalev joined the Faculty of Law in 1973, and in 1990 was appointed to the Lawrence Biele Chair of Contract Law. In the years 2008-2010 Prof. Shalev served as Israel’s ambassador to the United Nations – the first woman to fill this position. Over the years she has been a member of numerous public committees and commercial boards of directors, and she also served as the president of Ono Academic Campus. Shalev is a leading expert in Israel and internationally in the field of Contract Law and voluntary contracts. She has received the Sussman Prize for law and the Zeltner Prize for law. In 2003 she was received an award from the Israel Bar in recognition of her unique achievements in the academic study of law.


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Ayelet tapiro-gordon

Ayelet Tapiro-Gordon
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Ayelet Tapiero holds a BA in Law from the Hebrew University (cum laude).

During her undergraduate studies, Ayelet was a member of the Hebrew University team which participated in the Philip C. Jessup International Moot Court Competition, representing the faculty at the Washington DC International Competition, and was awarded the Fritz Overlander Award for Outstanding Students in Public International Law. After her studies, Ayelet interned with Dr. Yaacov Weinroth in the field of litigation.

Ayelet worked as a research assistant to Prof. Yuval Shani doing research relevant to his membership in the UN Human Rights Committee.

Ayelet served as an academic advisor to the International Master's Degree Programs at the Law Faculty at Hebrew University. 

Ayelet is a Research Fellow in the Faculty of Law since 2016.

Ayelet’s doctoral dissertation is titled Regulating the Sharing Economy. Prof. Eyal Zamir is her doctoral advisor.


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Eyal Zamir

Prof. Eyal Zamir

Augusto Levi Professor of Commercial Law
02-5823845; 052-4510121
Room 120
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Prof. Eyal Zamir is Augusto Levi Professor of Commercial Law at the Hebrew University, where he served as Dean of the Faculty of Law, and was the founding director of the Aharon Barak Center for Interdisciplinary Legal Studies and a founding member of the Center for Empirical Studies of Decision-Making and the Law. He was a visiting scholar or visiting professor at Harvard Law School, Yale Law School, NYU School of Law, University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School, Georgetown University Law Center, UCLA School of Law, University of Zürich, Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena, and the Center for Transnational Legal Studies in London.

Prof. Zamir’s research interests include economic and behavioral analysis of law, empirical legal studies, contract law and theory, and normative ethics and law. He authored or edited 18 books and published 80 articles. His latest four books were published with Oxford University Press. His articles were published in journals such as the Columbia Law Review, University of Chicago Law ReviewJournal of Legal Studies, Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, California Law Review, Virginia Law Review, American Journal of International Law, American Journal of Comparative Law, University of Toronto Law Journal, Law & Social Inquiry, Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, and Public Administration Review.

Prof. Zamir presented his work in numerous conferences and workshops, including the annual meetings of the American Law and Economics Association and the Society for Empirical Legal Studies.

Prof. Zamir has been awarded numerous fellowships and prizes, including the Fulbright Researcher Award; the Rothschild Fellowship; the Hebrew University President’s Prize for Excellent Young Scholar named after Y. Ben Porat (first recipient); the Zeltner Prize for Senior Scholar; and the Justice Shneor Zalman Cheshin Prize for Academic Excellence in Law for Senior Scholar.



1982 - LL.B. cum laude, Law Faculty, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel;

1989 - Dr. Jr., Law Faculty, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Representative publications

Law, Economics, and Morality 376 pp. (OUP, 2010, with Barak Medina); 
Chinese translation by Xu Dafeng (Fu Dan University Press, Shanghai China, 2015);

The Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Economics and the Law X+ 824 pp. (co-edited with Doron Teichman);

Law, Psychology, and Morality: The Role of Loss Aversion 258+18 pp. (OUP, 2014);

Behavioral Law and Economics XVII + 618 pp. (OUP, 2018, with Doron Teichman);

 “The Inverted Hierarchy of Contract Interpretation and Supplementation,” 97 Columbia L. Rev. 1710-803 (1997);

“The Efficiency of Paternalism,” 84 Virginia Law Review 229-86 (1998);

“The Missing Interest: Restoration of the Contractual Equivalence,” 93 Virginia Law Review 59-138 (2007);

“Law, Morality, and Economics: Integrating Moral Constraints with Economic Analysis of Law”, 96 California Law Review 323-91 (2008) (with Barak Medina);

“Revisiting the Debate over Attorneys’ Contingent Fees: A Behavioral Analysis,” 38 Journal of Legal Studies 245-88 (2010) (with I. Ritov);

“Loss Aversion, Omission Bias, and the Burden of Proof in Civil Litigation,” 41 Journal of Legal Studies 165-207 (2012) (with I. Ritov);

“Contract Law and Theory – Three Views of the Cathedral,” 81 University of Chicago Law Review 2077–2123 (2014);

“Affirmative Action and other Group Tradeoff Policies: Identifiability of the Adversely Affected People” 125 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50-60 (2014) (with I. Ritov);

“Explaining Self-Interested Behavior of Public-Spirited Policymakers” Public Administration Review (2017) (with Raanan Sulitzeanu-Kenan);

“A Theory of Mandatory Rules: Typology, Policy, and Design” 99 Texas Law Review 283–340 (2020) (featuring Ian Ayres).


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Efi Zemach

Dr. Efi Zemach

Associate Lecturer
Room 116א


2009 - LL.B., Law Faculty, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.